Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland and is the northernmost town in England, on the east coast at the mouth of the River Tweed. It is situated 2½ miles (4 km) south of the Scottish border. It is roughly 56 miles (90 km) east-south east ofEdinburgh, 65 miles (105 km) north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles (555 km) north of London.Berwick-upon-Tweed had a population of 13,265 at the time of the United Kingdom Census 2011. A civil parish and town council were created in 2008. Founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the kingdom of Northumbria, the area was for over 400 years central to historic border war between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and several times possession of Berwick changed hands between the two kingdoms. The last time it changed hands was when England retook it in 1482. Berwick remains a traditional market town and also has some notable architectural features, in particular its medieval town walls, its Elizabethan ramparts ("almost perfectly preserved and of immense architectural significance") and Britain's earliest barracks buildings (1717-21 by Nicholas Hawksmoor for the Board of Ordnance).
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